大熊猫

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    大熊猫
    Ailuropoda melanoleucus (David,1869)
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    鉴别特征
    <p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">体形大小似熊,全身毛色黑白分明。</span></span></p>
    特征
    <p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">体形肥壮,头圆而大,尾极短。蹠行性,行动蹒删。头躯长</span>1200—1800<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米,尾长</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">100—120</span><span style="font-family:宋体">毫米,野生者体重</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">60—73</span><span style="font-family:宋体">公斤,最重可达</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">110</span><span style="font-family:宋体">公斤。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">毛色:背面毛被粗而致密,有如氈状感触,腹面毛稀而长。在白色头部上毛茸茸黑耳耸立,大黑眼圈呈八字形排列,吻鼻端黑色,具独特容貌。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">躯干和尾白色,四肢全黑色。前肢的黑色毛向上横过肩部延伸成黑色环带。尾短,其下有分泌腺,周围毛色受分泌腺污染而呈黄白色。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">全身的黑或白色体毛均具浅棕色毛基。一般成体白色毛的乳棕色基部短而不显。幼体乳棕色毛基较长,从而使白毛显有棕色渲染,尤以臀部,尾部显著。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫的白色毛区以头部、背部为乳白色,腹部灰棕色或黑棕色,臀部黑白二色毛区逐渐过渡无截然界限,足底有棕色长毛。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">据动物园观察,雌雄性毛色略有差别,雄兽四肢及肩部呈深黑色,且显有光泽,白色毛亦洁白,雌兽为黑褐色。雄兽胸腹部为暗棕色,雌者为灰褐色或灰白色。雄兽在黑白二色的鲜明度上胜似雌体。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">四肢具五趾,趾端垫卵圆形,末端具黄白色爪。距间垫互相接近呈一横列。前足趾间垫内侧另有一较大足垫,内有骨支持,并可弯握向第一趾,常借二者间隙用以握持竹茎进食。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">趾垫和蹠趾具棕色稀疏的细绒毛(熊类则无毛),细绒毛长约</span>3<span style="font-family:宋体">厘米,大熊猫的足痕印迹与熊类相比则不够清晰。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">对幼体一半成体的大熊猫,在外形上,不宜区分性别,且两性大小便的姿式亦完全相同,均为伏卧地面上排便。幼年雄兽的睾丸及阴茎完全被肛门外缘的伸缩性外皮紧紧包藏起来。一周岁者阴茎距肛门前</span>40—50<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米,三周岁时则相距</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">100—120</span><span style="font-family:宋体">毫米,睾丸小如蚕豆般大。只有成年者睾丸始裸出体外。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">雌性大熊猫的生殖孔,距肛门前</span>80—100<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米处,亦为肛门外缘皮肤所掩盖。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">头骨:颅型较圆,吻部特短,颧弓粗大,强烈向两侧扩展。组成颅骨的骨板均比较厚;矢状嵴、人字嵴厚实,呈现粗笨的结构,尤以下颌骨及颧弓最为明显。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">颧弓骨板宽厚,颞侧端最宽处约</span>6<span style="font-family:宋体">厘米,颧弓的颧突和颞突愈合较早,颧宽颇大,为 </span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">185—238</span><span style="font-family:宋体">毫米。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">颌关节特强大而紧密,下颌的横柱形关节突亦较长,其关节面自关节突横轴外端的下前方斜向内端后下方成螺线形延长。构成下颌关节后壁的关节后突很发达,呈匙状向下突出,末端稍弯向前而达关节的腹侧面。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">听泡与关节后突完全融合在一起,不呈突泡状。无骨质外耳道和翼管,乳突特形发达,副乳突则很细小。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">矢状嵴发达,其基部内有腔窦(相当额窦),两侧扩展到颅腔背外侧壁,其腔窦比熊、浣熊等为发达。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">人字嵴呈半圆形板状突起,沿枕骨颈面(项面)的背侧缘向外突出,扩大了枕骨颈面的</span></span><span style=";font-family:宋体;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">广</span></span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">阔度。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">下颌骨粗厚,其门齿齿槽部愈合早,结合面又大。下颌角外缘成粗嵴状向外突出较高,从而增大颌关节前的咬肌附着面和凹陷深度。冠状突颇高,其末端尖削并弯向后,类似小熊猫者。下颌骨后部相距较宽,为容纳下颌内侧发达的咀嚼肌的必要条件。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫头骨构造特点是增大咀嚼肌的附着面,颌关节构造的加强,以及发达的臼齿等。粗大的颧弓和深陷的下颌骨咬肌面以及下颌骨角外缘的粗嵴都是为强大的咀嚼作用的基础。颌关节后面的关节后突,向下伸达关节内端的腹侧面,从而强固颌关节,高大的矢状嵴,人字嵴增加颞肌附着面。人字嵴更扩大了枕骨颈面的面积,使联结头颈之间的肌肉附着面增大,牵引沉重的头部,加强头部与躯干间的稳固的连接。(头骨图</span>10<span style="font-family:宋体">,大熊猫)</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:31px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:1px;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">牙齿:大熊猫的臼齿非常发达,是食肉目各科中最强大者。臼齿构造较复杂,接近于杂食兽型,裂齿分化不明显,犬齿和前臼齿发达,无齿槽间隙。齿式为:</span></span>3·1·4·2/(3·1·3-4·2)<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:1px;font-size:14px">= 40-42<span style="font-family:宋体">。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">上门齿呈弧形排列,下门齿呈一横列,第二对下门齿位置常靠后,似乎形成双列,这种现象在老龄头骨上则较明显。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">犬齿齿根粗大,而齿冠显短,齿尖不太锋利。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">第一对前臼齿极小,常见有一侧或双侧缺失的现象。第二对上前臼齿前缘偏向内,后缘偏向外,呈半斜位。第三、四对上前臼齿齿冠呈棱形,外侧有</span>3<span style="font-family:宋体">个,内侧有</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体">个齿突。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">臼齿属杂食兽结节型齿(或称丘突型齿),咀嚼面特宽大,约呈长方形,具大小不同的结节形齿尖。上臼齿有四个较大的齿尖,最后上臼齿特大,向后延伸于颧骨后部,冠面具有复杂的小棱形齿突。最后下臼齿小而齿尖并不明显,位于下颌支前缘之内侧。一般食肉兽最后上臼齿均位于冠状突基部前缘处,而大熊猫臼齿的后移即可限制上、下臼齿的左右摆动,又可增强咀嚼效益,但碾磨作用受到限制。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:29px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:27px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);letter-spacing:0;font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">臼齿的磨损上下不同,下臼齿的磨损始自外侧,而上臼齿则始于内侧,原因是左右上臼齿列之间的距离大于下颌臼齿列之间距。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫幼仔约</span>3—4<span style="font-family:宋体">月龄后开始生乳齿,完全出齐约需</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">2</span><span style="font-family:宋体">一</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">3</span><span style="font-family:宋体">个月。乳齿式为:</span></span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">2·1<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">·</span></span>3<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">·</span></span>0/<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">2·1<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">·</span></span>3<span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">·</span></span>0</span></span>=</span>24<span style="font-family:宋体">。恒齿的生长序是先出第一上臼齿,再出第四上前臼齿和第一上门齿。此后,第二、三上前臼齿,第二上臼齿,第二上门齿几乎同时萌发。但第二上臼齿生长缓慢和以后长出的第三上门齿同时长齐。第一上臼齿很晚才长出,最后生犬齿。下颌出齿序基本同于上颌。大熊猫从生乳齿到长成恒齿的过程若与熊类比较,则生长晚而缓慢。</span></span></p>
    分布
    <p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">在四川省内,沿四川盆地的西北周缘、西南部的大小凉山、雅安专区和西昌专区的北部:南北走向的邛崃山;北部的岷山山系,甘肃省文县,陕西省南部秦岭山脉主峰的佛坪县等。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">已捕获过大熊猫标本的地区有四川省北川、南坪、大邑、汶川、康定、泸定、松潘、平武、越西、灌县、天全、理县、宝兴、美姑、峨边、雷波等县,甘肃省文县和陕西省佛坪、宁陕、太白、洋县等。</span></span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">在</span>20<span style="font-family:宋体">世纪初期,曾有数次在康定捕获过大熊猫,据调查在六十年代初康定地区已不再见有大熊猫的踪迹,是为缩小分布地区的最近的例子。从大熊猫分布图可见陕南与川北间隔开来,川北与川南亦不再相连,可能类似现代康定缩小分布区的情况已在历史上不只一次地重复出现过。对大熊猫在近代历史上的分布及其逐渐隔离缩小的进一步研究,可为更好地保护现存大熊猫提供历史经验。</span></span></p>
    生态
    <p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫主要栖息于海拔</span>1400—3500<span style="font-family:宋体">米,落叶阔叶林、针阔混交林和亚高山针叶林带的山地竹林内。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫首要分布地区为四川北部的岷山山系,该地区处于青藏高原与四川盆地的过渡地带的北段。这里竹林面积广大,大熊猫数量最多。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">岷山山区地势高,地形复杂,一般海拔高度在</span>2000<span style="font-family:宋体">米上下。形成不同气候特点和植被类型,特别是垂直分布颇明显。在海拔</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">2700</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米以至森林上限的</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">3000</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米。主要树种为冷杉属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Abies</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)和云杉属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Picea</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)所组成的阴暗针叶林带。其下至</span>2000<span style="font-family:宋体">米为针阔混交林带,针叶树种有油松(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Pinus tabulaeformis</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)、华山松(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">P. armandi</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">),阔叶树种见有红桦(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Betula albo</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px">-</span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">sinensis</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)、漆树(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Rhus verniciflua</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)。气候冬寒夏凉,年均温约</span>5—6</span><span style=";font-family:宋体;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px">℃</span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">,湿润多雨,年降水量约</span>700<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米左右。适于高山耐寒的箭竹属竹种生长。例如冷箭竹(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Sinarun-dinaria</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"> </span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">fangiana</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)、紫箭竹(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">S. nitida</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)和丰实箭竹(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">S. ferax</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)等在阴暗针叶林内,构成第二林层。</span>2000—1000<span style="font-family:宋体">米为落叶阔叶林带,除红桦、漆树外,尚有高山栎类(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Quercus</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)等。竹种有箭竹属的一些竹种外,尚有法氏竹属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Fargesia</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"> sp.<span style="font-family:宋体">)和方竹属等种类生长</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1500</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米以下的低山地区,具有亚热带气候特点,年均温</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">13—16</span></span><span style=";font-family:宋体;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px">℃</span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">,降水量约</span>1000<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米左右,气候温暖湿润,适于刚竹属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Phyllostachys</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"> sp.<span style="font-family:宋体">)、方竹属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Chimonobambusa</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"> sp.<span style="font-family:宋体">)和鹤膝竹属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Indosasa</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"> sp.<span style="font-family:宋体">)等竹种生长。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">方竹属和箭竹属以及刚竹属的淡竹(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">P. nigra</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">),竹笋和嫩竹茎均略带甜味、鲜美可食。在岷山山系,冷箭竹为大熊猫的主要食物。冷箭竹高约</span>3—4<span style="font-family:宋体">米,竿形矮小而细弱,生长密度大,每平方米可达</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">10—20</span><span style="font-family:宋体">株,竹林内郁密、阴暗、潮湿。能见度极差,仅</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">2—3</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米。丛丛竹丛间隙或为自然通道,或为大熊猫所新闢或归弃的纵横交错的通道。钻入通道常可见到较多的大熊猫取食痕迹、粪便以及临时休息卧处。箭竹占竹林面积</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">30%</span><span style="font-family:宋体">,生长在红桦、栎类和漆树林下。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">在</span>700—1000<span style="font-family:宋体">米的低地,有方竹属的四川方竹和刺黑竹,是为大熊猫在冬季下降低处渡寒时取食量不大的竹种。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">秦岭山地:垂直分布亦颇明显。</span>2200—2900<span style="font-family:宋体">米为冷杉林(陕西冷杉)带和桦木林带上部。林下生长成片的松花竹(俗名)和木竹(俗名)混生。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">中山针阔混交林带(</span>1000—2200<span style="font-family:宋体">米)为秦岭山区占地面积最大地带。呈现低山和高山过渡色采。乔木林下,竹类遍地,多为刚竹属的木竹(俗名)。在秦岭,大熊猫主要食物即为木竹。此外高山处低山区尚有龙头竹。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">凉山山区:美姑、雷波等地是为大熊猫分布区南缘。气候属亚热带,仅高山地区竹林为大熊猫栖居地。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">若以秦岭、岷山和凉山三地区比较,岷山大熊猫数量较集中,秦岭面积最小,而凉山面积最大,但单位面积数量则显稀少。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫在不同季节的活动,虽无明显的垂直迁徙现象,但温度、食物、水源等可视为影响其栖居不同高度的原因。在秦岭山区的冬季和春初,多在海拔较低、避风积雪较少的向阳缓坡地,象河谷阶地、向阳的山嵴等处。而夏秋季节则在海拔较高、阴坡的箭竹丛中活动。这种季节性的垂直迁徙现象,纵然高度变化不大,但仍较明显。冬季和春初,大熊猫在山谷盆地或低地避寒。春末夏初,低山地区的木竹笋开始萌发,大熊猫多在这些地方觅食,待到夏季随气温升高,高山的箭竹才开始发笋,大熊猫觅寻鲜嫩竹笋亦由</span>1400—1500<span style="font-family:宋体">米处,逐逐上升到</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">2000</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米以上的高山。夏季时在秦岭的</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1700</span><span style="font-family:宋体">米以下的山地很少发现新鲜足迹和粪便。冬季时高山水源冻结,气温较冷又下降到低地山区阳坡。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">活动:大熊猫一般昼夜均活动,主要在清晨或黄昏时。睡眠与休息没有固定的巢穴,多在较厚的竹叶或树叶堆中,或在稠密的树杈间休息,睡眠。冬季更在阳坡高大树木上晒太阳。无冬眠习性,但在冬季活动力显著减弱,在秦岭地区,夏季时大熊猫在一处停留地点遗下新粪便仅数颗至十余颗,在冬季时则多达</span>30—40<span style="font-family:宋体">颗,说明在一地点停留时间较长。大熊猫能爬树,而下树时则以前肢抱树干,后肢垂直地向下溜,以臀部先着地,摔到地上亦有剥食树皮行为。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫常出入在箭竹丛下,浓荫遮覆的湿暗兽径中,有些兽径则通往山涧溪边,亦见大熊猫到溪流中饮水或游泳泅渡。平时行动缓慢,性较为温顺,很少主动攻击人或其他动物。若遇猎人或猎犬追击时,常借竹丛掩蔽而逃窜,或爬上高大树木以避敌。自卫能力较弱,视觉亦迟钝。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">食性:大熊猫在岷山山区,主食箭竹属(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Sinarundinaria</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)的大箭竹(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">S. changii</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">)、冷箭竹刚竹属、方竹属、法氏竹属和鹤膝竹属等。在秦岭山区主食为刚竹属的木竹(俗名),此外亦食较高地区的松花竹(俗名)和低地的龙头竹(俗名)。一般取食幼竹的茎和叶。特喜野果或一些动物性食物像动物尸体、麝等。或挖开竹鼠洞捕食竹鼠。或盗食伐木人、采药人所烧烤过的肉类、骨头食品等。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">冬季大熊猫有在水溪边反复饮水或暴饮的习性。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫的食量较大,成兽每昼夜要吃下</span>15—20<span style="font-family:宋体">公斤的竹子。或边走,边取食,在沿竹林内的兽径中,比比皆是被啃断的竹子,遗下的枝叶和较新鲜的粪便。取食时,将箭竹从</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">50—60</span><span style="font-family:宋体">厘米高处咬断,坐下来再用前爪握住竹茎慢慢咀嚼。有时,也会剥下竹皮后再食。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">新鲜粪便呈绿色,长椭圆形,两端稍尖;长约</span>10—20<span style="font-family:宋体">厘米,最大直径</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">5—10</span><span style="font-family:宋体">厘米。粪便全由竹叶或一段段扁裂竹茎所构成。若所食为竹笋或嫩竹,粪便呈淡黄绿色,不见纤维。若食竹茎,则可见有</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">25—45</span><span style="font-family:宋体">毫米长的小段竹节,由于大熊猫的消化力较粗糙,竹子又不易腐烂,大熊猫的粪便,常可保持较长时间,数月后仍依稀可辨其内含物。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">繁殖:大熊猫平时营孤独生活,多在春末夏初(</span>4—5<span style="font-family:宋体">月份)发情交配,亦有在秋季交配的。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">据平武县猎人反映,在发情期内,它们在夜间爬上树去,不断发出类似犬吠的低沉求偶叫声,据北京动物园的观察,发情期内,雄兽生殖器明显外露,阴茎长约</span>100<span style="font-family:宋体">毫米,雌兽阴门红肿,喜仰卧,或伏岩石,树杆上磨蹭。在秦岭山区于</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">7—9</span><span style="font-family:宋体">月分娩,多集中在</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">8</span><span style="font-family:宋体">月,在分娩期又有固定的巢穴,产仔巢穴,一般在大枯树洞内或石洞中。洞口或以竹杆、叶遮盖,洞内或以苔藓、竹叶等为铺垫,或在极隐蔽的地方以干草、树叶堆卷成类似筐状的巢。每胎多一仔,由雌兽单独抚育,母兽乳头胸位,常把幼仔抱持起来授乳或把初生的幼仔挟持于腋下。哺乳期母兽警愣性很高,遇有敌害的动向,即叼仔他移或挟仔逃去,或弃仔奔逃,不再回巢。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">初生幼仔,生长缓慢个体极小,既无视觉也不能行动。产后</span>40—60<span style="font-family:宋体">天始能全睁开眼,约到三个月后才能站立。</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">5—6</span><span style="font-family:宋体">个月后才能独立生活。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">性比:在自然界雌体似略多于雄体。</span></span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">天敌:大熊猫体内寄生虫主要是蛔虫(</span></span><em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-style:italic;font-size:14px">Ascaris schroedori</span></em><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">),特别是栖居于人们经济活动频繁地区者,感染率最大,老弱个体发病率亦高,蛔虫数量多导致体弱,严重者可引起胆囊炎或进入胰脏,在自然界豺、棕熊等可猎食大熊猫幼仔。</span></span></p><p><br/></p>
    功用
    <p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">我国特产的大熊猫是世界公认的最珍贵动物之一,具有十分重要的学术意义和经济意义。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">自更新世中期以来,和大熊猫差不多同时期的古动物,如剑齿象等灭绝了。唯独大熊猫保留了下来,是现今兽类中不可多得的</span>“<span style="font-family:宋体">活化石</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体">。据估计,可能与大熊猫独占竹林有很大关系,借竹林隐匿,与外界隔开,竹林内又几乎无匹敌的竞争者。研究大熊猫,可以从它身上看出动物与环境之间辩证发展的历史,同时又是纪录着从食肉到食竹两种截然不同食性的转化的活标本。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫毛色黑白分明,具独特容貌;形态似熊而非熊。以及颇似幼小动物的行为与动作,十分吸引入,非常惹人喜爱。是各国动物园竞相展出的世界性重要展览动物。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">解放前,欧洲烈强通过各种手段,掠取我国各方面资源,对珍贵动物亦不放过。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">自</span>19<span style="font-family:宋体">世纪末至</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">20</span><span style="font-family:宋体">世纪初,外人先后数次进入我国捕获大熊猫。</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1936</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年美国人从我国运出第一只活大熊猫,</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1938</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年英国人竟一次运出五只活大熊猫到欧洲各国展出。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">中华人民共和国建立不久,早在</span>1953<span style="font-family:宋体">年成都动物园即开始饲养大熊猫,</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1955</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年在北京动物园,</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1958</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年在上海,</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1961</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年在南京、昆明、</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1964</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年在广州,哈尔滨等地动物园饲养、展出大熊猫。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px">1963<span style="font-family:宋体">年</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">9</span><span style="font-family:宋体">月,北京动物园的大熊猫</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体">莉莉</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体">,顺利地生产了一只雄性幼仔</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">“</span><span style="font-family:宋体">明明</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">”</span><span style="font-family:宋体">,是世界上第一只在人工饲养条件下出生的大熊猫。此后又在北京和上海等地不断繁殖成功。对大熊猫实际饲养、观察,成功地繁殖的经验不断提供出大批科学资料,对我国大熊猫逐渐加深全面了解。</span></span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">我们社会主义祖国在开展各方面建设的同时,于</span>1959<span style="font-family:宋体">年,我国政府制定了限制珍贵动物出口的条例,体现了党和国家对珍贵动物资源的保护政策。</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1962</span><span style="font-family:宋体">年,国务院</span></span><span style=";font-family:宋体;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">颁发了</span>“关于积极保护和合理利用野生动物资源”的指示,规定大熊猫为国家保护的珍贵稀有动物,并设自然保护区加以保护。继四川省平武县王朗大熊猫自然保护区的建立之后,自1975年又开始在四川省汶川县建立新的更大型的卧龙大熊猫自然保护区和陕西佛坪珍贵动物保护区,以保护大熊猫等为对象。大熊猫产区的各族人民和我国科技人员正在为保护和合理利用动物资源不断做出新贡献。</span></p><p><br/></p>
    讨论
    <p style="text-indent:28px;text-autospace:none;vertical-align:middle;line-height:26px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">大熊猫在秦岭、岷山和凉山三地,已呈断裂分布。虽三地的植被类似,但彼此气候有些差别,秦岭较冷,凉山较热。作为大熊猫主食的竹种有别,川北为竹丛茂密的箭竹属,在秦岭山区为刚竹属、箭竹属。岷山地区大熊猫数量集中。凉山则分布面广但密度小。</span></span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;color:rgb(0,0,0);font-size:14px"><span style="font-family:宋体">对比秦岭和岷山、凉山大熊猫标本,仅略显差异,秦岭者个体偏大,体毛粗糙些,覆毛略染棕色色泽,岷山、凉山者对比之下个体略小些,体毛无粗糙感,腹毛棕色不显。但大熊猫体型大小常有变异,在岷山区有时老成个体仅略大或等于半成体,初步认为限于目前资料和种群变异较大些,地区分化尚不够明显,有待今后进一步研究。</span></span></p>
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